To develop inductive reasoning, mental inductive process, and understanding of concepts and principles. In behavior modification and in the task of helping individual to learn good habits, to imbibe desirable attitudes, interest and other may personality characteristics, we generally use the term "model" or modelling in presenting some ideal figure of behavior for the purpose of its copying or imitation by the individual concerned. It is the systematic sequence of the activities in the model. Finally, results showed that there are no significant differences among school teachers in perceiving the proposed characteristics of effective professional development and in perceiving the most and the least effective professional development models that are attributed to their gender, years of experience in teaching, and school level. The operant conditioning model belongs to the family of behavior modification models. When using direct instruction, monitoring student progress towards learning goals and providing clear feedback are necessary for con… Characteristics of Teaching Models Goals: Models promote deep understanding of content and critical thinking. c- Specification of criterion of Performance-It specify the criterion of Performance  which is accepted by the students The behavioural outcome which the learner would demonstrate after completing specific instructional sequences are delineated in the teaching models. It posits learning as assessment of our actions, which causes us to revise our mental models. b- Specification of operation- It specifies the mechanism that provides for the reaction of students and interaction with the environment. Flander).- Flander considered teaching process as an interaction process. Bruce Joyce & Marsha Weil defined “A model of teaching is a pattern or plan which can be taken up with a view to shape a curriculum or course to select appropriate instructional material and to guide the teacher’s action” “Teaching models are just instructional designs .They describe the process of specifying and producing particular environmental situations which cause the students to interact in … To develop individual competencies and mutual relations. They made difficult work comprehensible without oversimplifying, and used simple language. A- The Insight model (Plato).-The insight model discard the assumption that the meaning of of a teaching model is merely deliver the knowledge or ideas through teaching to the mental domain  of the students. Characteristics of a Teaching model . Some this definitions are produced here: - Refers to the ways people handle stimuli from the environment, organize data, sense problems, generate concepts, and solutions to problems, and employ verbal and non verbal symbols. The inquiry training model was developed by J. Richard Suchman for deveoping scientific inquiry training skills in the pupils. Whatever experiences are provided through teaching, creates impression on child’s brain. These are based on the following specifications: a-Specification of Environment- It specifies in definite terms the environmental conditions under which a student’s response should be observed. Bandura and Walters have formulated three kind of effect in teaching by modelling: 1-     Modelling effect- The learner acquires new kind of response pattern. It means the utility or usage of the learnt material in other situations. Prior to the sixties the research on important school- and classroom-related variables was directed toward the best traits or characteristics of teachers in an attempt to identify good teaching and the important characteristics of schools and communities that support good teaching. Proctor's Model. It is the nucleus of a teaching model. 1- Encourage Art of Teaching- Teaching is considered as an art.. 4-     Influenced by Philosophy- Every teaching model is influenced by the philosophy of education. Characteristics of Good Teaching Aids A few characteristics of good teaching aids are as follows :-1) Teaching aids are large enough to be seen by the students for whom they are used. To help students work together to identify and solve problems, Brief review of The Social Interaction Source Models. Every teaching model has its specific objective. Former Principal, A.K.P.I.College, Roorkee, India. We generally use the term model or modelling in presenting some ideal figure or behaviour for the purpose of its copying or imitation by the individual concerned. The synetics mode of teaching owes its origin to William JJ Gordon (1968). These four families are : Within the families, there are specific models which are designed to serve particular purposes. Any teaching model is developed by keeping this focal point in mind.  Every teaching model differs from another in terms of its objectives. Create assignments which directly relate to accomplishing the course objective. In some the activity is centred around the pupils, and in some other models the activity is equally distributed.  This element is based on the assumption that every class is a miniature society. Hence, teachers formulate different models of teaching under the influence of the philosophy they believe. .According to  N.K.Jangira and Azit Singh (1983): “A model of teaching is a set of inter-related components arranged in a sequence which provides guidelines to realize specific goal. Teaching model evaluates the behaviour of the students. Initially, a list of common features of models and modelling, based on the literature was compiled. Blended learning is a learning model that combines digital and face-to-face learning experiences. Teaching models encourages this art by providing learning environment. - The models belonging to the behaviour modification family are related to the behaviour modification theories. A- Instructional effects are the direct effects of the model which result from. Naturally social system occupies a central position in making the teaching impressive and successful in relation to the previously selected objectives. thus, different meanings may prove quite helpful in understanding or defining the term "Models of Teaching" or "Teaching Models". The term "concept attainment" is historical linked with the work of Jerome S. Bruner and associates and that it is why the model is name as Bruner's Concept Attainment Model. In guiding the teacher to select appropriate teaching techniques, strategies and methods for the effective utilization of the teaching situation and material for realizing the set of objectives. Bruce Joyce and Marsha Weil describe a Model of Teaching as a plan or pattern that can be used to shape curricula, to design instructional materials and to guide instruction in the classroom and other settings. 2-     -Inhibitory and disinhibitory effect- The learner increases or decreases the frequent, latency or intensity or previously required responses. 2- Psychological model of teaching: John P. Dececco had mentioned such types of models. Fundamental Elements of a Teaching Model: Normally majority of teaching models are based on the following six elements: Focus is the central aspects of a teaching model.  Objectives of teaching and aspects of environment generally constitute the focus of the model. Kant gives importance to logic, because in it following certain rules is essential. It is an important element of a teaching model. They are concerned with the ability of the learner to observe, organise data, understand information, form concepts, employ verbal and nonverbal symbols and solve problems. Foundations: Models are supported by theory and research. It includes. To develop self learning by auto instructions, self research and self understanding. 3. Many of the personal models of teaching have been developed by counsellors, therapists and other persons interested in stimulating individual’s creativity and self expression. Models of Teaching are really models of learning. Key Characteristics of Waldorf education The International Forum for Steiner Waldorf Education (IF) at its meetings in Vienna/Austria on 17 May 2015 and in Arles/France on 7 May 2016 revised and re-adopted the document “Key characteristics of Waldorf education” – … Every model is developed by keeping in view its focal point or objective . To increase the students’ creativity and playfulness. It means the detailed description of the model in action. Provide systematic procedure and organized efforts for the desirable modification of the behavior of the learners. Syntax  of the model describes the model in action. As we helps students acquire information ideas skills, values, ways of thinking, and means of expressing themselves, we are also teaching them how to learn . Mental processes and language both work together. 9. The models of this type are concerned with the intellectual development of the individual and help to develop the method of processing information from the environment. In it,he comes to know that how he has to react to the responses of the students and has to see whether the learners have been actively involved in the process, or not. To solve problems on the basis of information and reasoning power. In fact the most important long term outcome of instruction may be the student’s increased capabilities to learn more easily and effectively in the future. Teaching strategies are incorporated within each of the models.For instance,questioning The knowledge can not be provided merely by speaking the words or listening them. Models of teaching are some sort of pattern or plans prepared in advance for the success of the teaching learning process. Directinstruction is a teacher-centered model in which students learn from presentations or demonstrations by the teacher. In the learning process the sense organs . A teacher, a leader or a screen hero may work as  a model for a child and he may pick up the behavioral traits of the personality of that model. The proper development of a teaching model is only possible when the assumptions are made clear by related thinking. Gagne feels that learning through imitation seems to be more appropriate for tasks which are a little cognitive in nature. Selecting the content and presenting it for learning  before the students is the main essentiality of teaching. Teaching + Learning as Conversation Two second-order systems interacting Philosophical commentary on issues of today, Obsession- an unwanted thought viewed as meaningful, important, and dangerous, Philosophies of Education-A critical evaluation, Mathematics Laboratory and it’s Application in mathematics Teaching, Super- conscious Experience- The How Aspect, The Wardha Scheme of Education –GANDHI JI POINT OF VIEW. Help in creating a proper teaching- learning environment. Initially this method was used to developed creativity groups within industrial organization. The mastery learning model represents the most useful and practicable models of teaching being applied in the schools and training settings for improving the instructional effectiveness. In lectures, visual media, such as overheads, slides, handouts and blackboard diagrams were used to assist in explanation or clarification where appropriate. also Kalin, 2004, pp. Teaching models help curriculum planners to plan learning activities and content material which provide a variety of educational experiences to learners. They suggest the ways and techniques of creating a favorable environmental condition for carrying out the teaching process. Help the teacher in the task in the same way as an engineer is helped in the construction of a building or bridge by an appropriate model or blueprint prepared in advance. It helps students to acquire information, ideas, skills, value, way of thinking and means of expressing themselves. Every model has various phases, some particular types of competencies are developed by it. help in specifying the criteria of acceptable performance expected from the learners in a specific teaching- learning situation. These models focus on intellectual capacity. According to Joyce and Weil, Each model results in two types of effects Instructional and Nurturant. To help students develop plans for increasing their competence. 213–214). In order to access the characteristics in each content area, please click a content area below. The eliciting effect takes place when through modelling; a teacher tries to teach students to get up when he enters the room. B- An Interaction model of teaching (N.A. Directing all resources of teaching to achieve the specific objective or  goals. To develop creative competencies for problem solving. They are the indirect effects of the model. Phases: Models follow a series of prescribed steps. All the models in this family share a common theoretical base, a body of knowledge which referred to as behaviour theory. This element is concerned with the way a teacher should regard and aspects respond to the activities of the students.  These responses should be appropriate and selective. They differ from general teaching techniques and strategies in the sense that they are designed to meet specific objectives or goals. 2) Teaching aids are meaningful and they always stand to serve a useful purpose. We look out the model of Taj Mahal and find it an exact replica of the original. To develop competencies of problem solving and adjustment. The four parts  of the model  represent the basic divisions. The teaching models have been classified into three main types: 1. Syntax includes the sequences of steps involved in the organization of the complete programmed of teaching. For this important task, it presents such a criterion with the help of which the changes in the students behaviours can be easily evaluated. Weaving educational practice. It means the additional requirements beyond the usual human skill, capacities and technical facilities. 6-     Providing Appropriate Experiences- Teaching models provides proper experiences to both teacher and student. Bruce R.Joyce has divided all the teaching models under the title “Modern teaching models”. It helps in designing instructional activities and environmental facilities, carrying out of these activities and realization of the stipulated objectives. This is why models prove a quite effective aid as a substitute for reality in the classroom situation. Each model has a distinct flow of phases. 3-      Eliciting effect- The learner receives from a model merely a cue for realising a response. The emphasis of these models is on developing an individual into an integrated, confident and competent personality. The objective of rule model is to devlop the logical reasoning capacities of the student. Holds attention and respect of students….practices effective classroom management. The performances of the student are evaluated. M. Ed, Ph.D. Former Principal, K.L.D.A.V. Teaching models helps in providing a theoretical rationale to the teaching, which will provide changes and rectifications in teaching. MEANING OF MODEL: The term ‘model’ means exact replica of the original. The differ from general teaching techniques and strategies in the sense that they are designed to meet specific objectives or goals. Blended Learning. The primary purposes are : 2. In another way the term "model" profoundly used by artists, architects or engineers in their professional activities, Initially, the models of dams, projects, installation or construction of machinery and equipment are prepared and then the work is carried out exactly as it has been laid down in the model. It helps in designing instructional activities and environmental facilities, carrying out of these activities and realization of the stipulated objectives.”. Save the energy, time and efforts of the teacher and the learners besides providing economy  to the best utilization of the other teaching learning resources. While there are many teaching models, some basic ones are direct instruction, lecture, cooperative learning, inquiry-based learning, seminar and project-based learning. Planning, organisation and interaction of teaching is performed under specific rules. Philosophical teaching models: Israel Saffer had mentioned such types of models. The ultimate goal of bringing desirable changes in the behavior of pupil may be achieved through these designs. Through modelling the teacher lets the student know that it is not permissible of obscene nature in art book. Which model of instruction is most common in the United States? 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